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Survey Number: HPS-429
Year Built: 1940
Architectural Style: Ranch


BACKGROUND + STATUS:
The historic 1940 Laird (Zeilinger) House located at 1204 South Mill Avenue in the Park Tract subdivision is nominated for designation and listing in the Tempe Historic Property Register at the request of the property owners, Elna Rae and Phil Zeilinger. The property is considered potentially eligible for this action by the Historic Preservation Office.

The Laird (Zeilinger) House is significant for its association with the 1924 Park Tract subdivision, one of Tempe’s oldest intact subdivisions; with Edna V. and Hugh E. Laird, with their daughter Ruby’s family (Simpson); with local architect Kemper Goodwin; and as an excellent example of the ranch style house form. This property has been damaged by fire and survives as a best example of its type. The owners have requested historic designation based on an agreement setting forth the conditions for restoration whereby the property can continue to convey its historic significance. This research report develops the significance of the property in the context of Residential Architecture in Tempe, Arizona 1940, and other relevant historic contexts.

LOCATION
Located at the south-eastern extent of the original Townsite, Park Tract is an early "suburban" residential subdivision platted by Hugh Laird and Fred J Joyce, April 10, 1924, on behalf of the Park Tract Trust in response to a housing shortage in Tempe. The subdivision was designed to provide comfortable and modern family houses, influencing some of Tempe’s prominent citizens to purchase lots and have their homes built here. Development of the subdivision began on 100 lots in the area roughly bound by 10th Street, Mill Avenue, 13th Street, and the Union Pacific Railroad tracks. The subdivision was designed to provide comfortable and modern family housing to meet a pent up demand. Similarly, the Ranch style house was designed to help fulfill requirements for affordable and efficient modern housing.

Park Tract Subdivision is identified as a Cultural Resource Area in Tempe’s land use plan: General Plan 2030. These areas are considered culturally significant to the character of Tempe and General Plan 2030 states that it is desirable to maintain the character of these areas. General Plan 2030 further states that the underlying zoning in place at the time the plan was adopted should remain as the highest appropriate density for Cultural Resource Areas. Accordingly, Cultural Resource Areas are indicated on the GP2030 Projected Land Use Map with the density of the zoning in place at the time the plan was adopted on December 4, 2003. The subdivision of Park Tract predated adoption of a zoning ordinance by the Tempe Town Council. Today this property is zoned R-2: Multi-Family Residential.[i] [ii]

The historic 1940 Laird (Zeilinger) House is located on Lot 9 of Block 3 of the Park Tract Subdivision. Block 3 forms the southeastern corner of the subdivision and of the Original Tempe Townsite from 1894. Located on Mill Avenue, the fragile eastern edge of Park Tract consists of large lots, many of which have been redeveloped for non-residential use resulting in sporadic loss of integrity at the historic neighborhood perimeter. Block 3 at the southern edge of Park Tract however maintains substantial integrity of historic properties and types of land use and includes two other properties listed in the Tempe Historic Property Register.[iii] [iv]

CONDITION
The historic 1940 Laird (Zeilinger) House has been damaged by fire. The historic structure is a clay brick masonry single family home built in 1940 and converted to a duplex in 1957, when a wood frame addition was added to the rear providing a second kitchen and bath and adding an Arizona room. Today the property includes both the duplex with addresses 1204 and 1206, and a separate apartment to the rear with alley access and an address of 1204 ½ S. Mill Ave. The owner plans to repair the historic 1940 Laird (Zeilinger) House to its original use as a single family house, remove the frame addition at the rear, and continue use of the historic 1204 South Mill Avenue address.

On July 24, 2010, at 2248 hours, Tempe Fire Department Battalion 271 responded to a house fire confined to the duplex at 1204/1206 South Mill Avenue. The front (east) façade experienced the most damage due to an explosion, reported as a smoke event, which caused two large steel casement windows at the northeast corner of the house to be blown out of the wall displacing bricks and steel lintels. Additional damage was done to portions of the roof and areas of the floor. In addition, all of the historic steel casement windows were subsequently removed and disposed of as a lead-based paint mitigation strategy.

On November 9, 2010, the commission discussed historic designation and determined that in its present condition the property would not be eligible for designation and listing in the Tempe Historic Property Register. The commission recognized the significance of the property for its association with the historic Park Tract subdivision; with the Laird family; with Kemper Goodwin; and, if properly repaired, as an excellent example of the Ranch style house form. The commission also identified those conditions whereby HPO could support and HPC could recommend that the property be designated historic and listed in the Tempe Historic Property Register. Accordingly, on December 14, 2010, the Owner nominated the property for historic designation.

As an aid to the commission in making a recommendation for designation and listing and to assist the Owner in making repairs, HPO has prepared a memorandum of agreement between the Owner and the HPO identifying the stipulations to be implemented in order to rehabilitate the property in such manner as to make it eligible for the requested historic designation and listing in the Tempe Historic Property Register. As memorialized in the agreement, those stipulations are:

I. The OWNER shall ensure that the roof shall remain a full-hip roof faithful to historic form and proportions, and;

II. The OWNER shall ensure that the exterior walls shall remain the original clay brick masonry faithful to historic form and proportions but no longer used in a load-bearing capacity in damaged areas, and;

III. The OWNER shall ensure that the windows shall remain steel casement windows faithful to historic form and proportions and in existing masonry openings made neither smaller or larger except in locations where fire safety egress is required, and;

IV. The OWNER shall ensure that no additional loss of historic integrity will occur.

AGE
The historic 1940 Laird (Zeilinger) House was built in a year of peak residential construction in Park Tract and throughout Tempe. The residence is in the upper ninety-ninth percentile (n = 181/53,665 = 99.56) of Tempe properties in terms of age. HPO records indicate 84 extant properties date to 1940, fifty percent more than the number of properties built in any single prior year of the 70 years for which records exist. Significantly, 1940 marked the end of the established prewar delivery system of residential development by small builders and local developers. From 1940 to 1950, Tempe’s population increased 235%, from 2,906 to 7,686, and by the end of the decade the community was thoroughly engaged in a sustained post-war population explosion. Based on data from Tempe HPO files corroborated by Maricopa County Assessor’s Office data, 181 standing properties are believed to predate the historic 1940 Laird (Zeilinger) House having year-built dates of 1939 or earlier. Statistically, this property is in the top 99.5% of all Tempe properties in terms of age and therefore must be considered to survive as a rare example of early residential construction in Tempe.[v]

SIGNIFICANCE
The Laird (Zeilinger) House is significant for its association with the 1924 Park Tract subdivision, one of Tempe’s oldest intact subdivisions; with Edna V. and Hugh E. Laird, and their daughter Ruby and her husband Clayborn E. Simpson; and with local architect Kemper Goodwin. The 1940 Laird (Zeilinger) House (Simpson House) is also an excellent example of the Ranch style house form.

The Laird (Zeilinger) House is located in the Park Tract subdivision in Tempe. Park Tract was an earlier "suburban" subdivision that was platted in August of 1924 by local entrepreneurs Hugh Edward Laird (1882-1970) and Fred J Joyce (1881-1967), who filed organization papers with the County Recorder for the Park Tract Trust, a business trust organized for acquisition, subdivision, and development of real property on March 24, 1920. From the onset, the vision of Park Tract was to provide comfortable and modern family houses to meet demand for a growing population. Tempe had been experiencing a housing shortage for many years, and the Park Tract was designed to provide comfortable and modern family type housing. The Zeilinger Rental House (Simpson House) is an example of later infill construction in a developed area.

Hugh Laird built the home at 1204 South Mill Avenue in 1940 for his daughter Ruby Laird Simpson, her husband Ed, and children Elna Rae and Laird. Hugh Liard lived with his daughter on the property for several years after his wife, Edna Hackett Laird, died in 1943. The Laird (Zeilinger) House was owned by Ruby Simpson and Felix Grosson in 1946, and by Clayborn E. Simpson in 1948. Ruby Simpson was the daughter of Hugh Laird and Edna V. Laird. One of Tempe's most outstanding citizens, Hugh Laird came to Tempe with his family in 1888 at the age of 5 years. His residency in Tempe continued until his death in 1970. During that time his business and public service career included 60 years as a registered pharmacist, 66 years as owner of Laird and Dines Drug Store (T-196), 12 years as Tempe postmaster and two terms as a representative in the state legislature. Perhaps most outstanding contribution to local politics was his 32-year consecutive seat on the Tempe City Council, 14 of those years as Mayor. During that period, from 1930 to 1962, Tempe’s population rose from 2,500 to 25,000 and the town saw substantial growth far beyond its anticipated boundaries, especially after the close of World War II. Policies generated during Laird’s lengthy tenure on the City Council did much to shape the present environment and image of modern Tempe.

The Laird (Zeilinger) House is one of the finer examples of the Ranch style and one of many Ranch homes along Mill Avenue. The low-pitch hip roof emphasizes the broad front facade. It is one of only several houses in Park Tract attributable to prominent Tempe Architect Kemper Goodwin (1906-1997). Goodwin was born in Tempe and received his architectural training at the University of Southern California. Licensed to practice architecture in Arizona in 1931, he established his own practice in Tempe after several years working for Valley firms. Over the next thirty years his architectural firm, which eventually expanded to 40 employees, became one of the most successful in the state. Although damaged, most of the original fabric remains intact and thus the building could be repaired to contribute again to the historic character along Mill Avenue.[vi]

INTEGRITY
Integrity is the ability of a property to convey its significance. To be listed in the Tempe Historic Property Register, a property must be significant under ordinance criteria and it must also possess sufficient integrity to communicate its significance to persons familiar with the property or to the community at large. The integrity of a property is evaluated according to aspects which must be present in different combinations depending on the criteria from which historic significance is derived. For the case at hand, the property derives significance because it is associated with the lives of significant persons in or past (NPS Criterion B) and because it embodies the distinctive characteristics of a type of construction (NPS Criterion C). Careful evaluation of integrity must be made to inform an opinion of eligibility based on guidance provided in National Register Bulletin 15 “How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation”. Bulletin 15 states the older or more rare a property has become, the less integrity must be present for eligibility. As noted, this property is in the upper 99th percentile of all Tempe properties in terms of age and therefore survives as a rare example of early residential construction in Tempe [vii]

For the Laird (Zeilinger) House to be designated historic on the basis of its association with the lives of significant persons in our past (NPS Criterion B), the property must maintain integrity of materials, feeling, and association in order to convey its significance. For the property to be considered historic because it embodies the distinctive characteristics of an architectural style (NPS Criterion C), the property must maintain integrity of design, workmanship, materials, and feeling in order to convey its significance. As seen in the following discussion, the property in its current condition could most easily meet the minimum requirements under Criterion B and planning and implementation of repairs will anticipate this as the basis for designation and listing.[viii]

Location – This property exists in its original location. The Park Tract Subdivision encompasses a collection of historic resources directly associated with the early growth and development of Tempe and the Salt River Valley. The evolution of Tempe over the past 140 years holds national, state, and local significance for its important role in the development of the Salt River Valley as a center of commerce and education, as a critical link in the transportation networks established during settlement of the Territory, and for its associations with important political figures. Tempe’s unique heritage is exemplified in its significant residential architecture and infrastructure. These exist today at the subject property and throughout the Park Tract Subdivision as manifestations of those Arizona pioneers who transformed the desert environment of the Salt River Valley into a community of enduring consequence and unequalled character unique in Arizona.[ix]

Sited prominently in the 1200 block of South Mill Avenue, the historic 1940 Laird (Zeilinger) House occupies land that was included in the boundaries of the Original Tempe Townsite in 1894. Although not subdivided until thirty years later, the Park Tract subdivision was never annexed into the corporate limits of Tempe – rather uniquely, it was an integral part of the community from the onset. Today, the south portion of the Original Townsite, the historic Park Tract Subdivision is a busy and vibrant residential neighborhood. The City is currently experimenting with various traffic-calming features in the right-of-way; however, the clear and present landmark status of Tempe’s oldest surviving residential neighborhood, the Maple Ash Neighborhood, retains its historic identity and is recognized throughout the community and beyond.[x] [xi]

Design – Design is the composition of elements that constitute the form, plan, space, structure, and style of a property. Because properties change through time, changes may acquire significance in their own right and changes do not necessarily constitute a loss of design integrity. Although additions have been made to the rear of the historic house, the property maintains the original spatial relationships between major features; visual rhythms; layout and materials; and the relationship of other features as originally designed and constructed. Many Design aspects typifying the Ranch style remain present and continue to contribute to this aspect of property integrity.[xii]

Setting – Setting is the physical environment of an historic property that illustrates the character of the place. Although integrity of setting is not a condition precedent to designation in this case, the property nevertheless retains connections to the physical environment of its surroundings. Original relationships of buildings and structures to the streetscape and landscape; layout and materials of alleyways and walks; and the features of flood irrigation and other infrastructure exist with their integrity intact. The great sweeping curve made by Mill Avenue as it veers east to meet Apache Boulevard looks much as it did when this house was built in 1940, although a much newer landmark, the Grady Gammage Memorial Auditorium, now provides a spectacular backdrop for the historic homes along this reach of South Mill Avenue.[xiii]

Materials – For eligibility under Criterion B, a property must retain key exterior materials dating from the period of its historic significance. Integrity of materials determines whether or not an authentic historic resource still exists. To qualify, the Laird (Zeilinger) House must retain key physical elements as they were originally configured to reveal the preferences, to indicate the availability of particular types of materials, to exemplify technologies, and to reflect contemporary determinants of demand including consumer tastes and preferences, market size, income, prices of related goods, and consumer expectations. In a materials palate as abbreviated as that of the Ranch style house, every element takes on heightened significance and diagnostic value. Here the Architect focused primarily on exploiting the clay masonry brick work in a masterful rendition that exceeds the form of most contemporaneous examples. Divided vertically in classical proportions a projecting belt course separates a base laid in Running bond from upper walls laid up in Common or American bond. Here is a variation of running bond with a course of full length headers at regular intervals providing structural bonding as well as pattern. Header courses occur every sixth course and the fenestration is highlighted further by a singular rowlock course. At the base, where we have the simplest of the basic bond patterns, running bond stretchers are embellished by weeping mortar where as joints in the upper walls are struck, effectively creating the appearance of two different wall materials but using only one type of brick.[xiv] [xv]

Workmanship – Workmanship is the physical evidence of the crafts of a particular culture or people during any given period of history. Workmanship is important because it can furnish evidence of the technology of the craft, illustrate the aesthetic principles of an historic period, and reveal individual, local, regional, or national applications of both technological practices and aesthetic principles. This property conveys physical evidence of the crafts attendant upon Ranch style masonry house construction in the 1940s American Southwest.[xvi]

Feeling – Feeling is a property's expression of the aesthetic or historic sense of a particular period of time. For eligibility under Criterion B, a property must retain an aesthetic sense of period of significance. The physical features of the Laird (Zeilinger) House, taken together, are sufficiently intact to convey their prewar period of significance to someone familiar with the original property as well as to persons throughout the community to whom the property distinguishes itself as historic. Retention and good maintenance of original design, materials, workmanship, and setting as described above create a discernable sense of place and a feeling of history about the property.[xvii]

Association – Association is the direct link between an important historic event or person and an historic property. For eligibility under Criterion B, a property must retain association as a condition precedent to designation. The Laird (Zeilinger) House maintains direct and uninterrupted links to the Laird family who have owned the property continuously since 1940 when Hugh Laird built the home for his daughter Ruby (Laird) Simpson, her husband Ed, and children Elna Rae and Laird. Hugh Liard lived with his daughter on the property for several years after his wife, Edna Hackett Laird, died in 1943. In 1955, Elna Rae Simpson married E.C. Pohlman and the house was converted into a duplex with E.C. and Elna Rae on one side and Ruby and Ed on the other. The house has remained a duplex until the present time and is still owned by Elna Rae (Simpson) Zeilinger, granddaughter of the original builder, Tempe Mayor Hugh E. Laird. The house is emblematic of important events in community history and illustrative of consecutive waves of suburbanization outward from the original settlement at the Salt River. Now standing as an anchor at the edge of the historic 1924 Park Tract subdivision, the historic property continues to clearly mark the last wave of pre-war development that radiated in bands within the core of the original Townsite.[xviii]

The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation provide a framework for evaluating the effects of changes on the integrity of a property. The Standards define Rehabilitation as "the process of returning a property to a state of utility, through repair or alteration, which makes possible an efficient contemporary use while preserving those portions and features of the property which are significant to its historic, architectural, and cultural values.[xix]

Finally, we are fortunate to also have policy available from the Arizona State Historic Preservation Office that addresses continued eligibility of a property in consideration of changes in integrity over time. As directed by the commission, staff is prepared to develop detailed evaluations of property integrity using criteria provided in each of these instruments so as to establish a finding of integrity in greater detail.[xx]

RESOURCES
Letter Receipt of Nomination : : 12/16/2010 HPO to Applicant with links to relevant websites 

Research Report to Historic Preservation Commission : : 01/13/2011 Neighborhood Meeting at HPC

Staff Summary Report to Historic Preservation Commission : : 02/10/2011 Public Hearing at HPC 

Supplemental Research Regarding Rehabilitation : : 02/10/2011 Public Hearing at HPC 

Staff Report to Development Review Commission : : 02/22/2011 Public Hearing at DRC

Staff Report to City Council : : 03/10/2011 Public Hearing at CC 

Staff Report to City Council : : 03/24/2011 Public Hearing at CC 

ORDINANCE NO. 2011.08 : : 04/23/2011 Date Effective

ENDNOTES
[i] City of Tempe, Tempe General Plan 2030 Adopted: December 4, 2003, Chapter 3, Land Use, Design + Development, Land Use Element, accessed online 12/22/2010 at: http://www.tempe.gov/generalplan/FinalDocument/chapter3.pdf Cultural Resource Area (existing density allowed by zoning) Areas identified on the density map, which are considered culturally significant to the character of Tempe, based on the 2001 Post World War II Subdivision Study. It is desirable to maintain the character of these areas. The underlying zoning should remain the highest appropriate density for these areas. These areas are shown as Cultural Resource Areas, with a projected density to match the zoning at the time this plan is adopted.

[ii] City of Tempe, Zoning and Development Code, amended: October 2, 2008, Part 2 – Establish Zoning
Districts, Map (page 2-30) accessed online 12/22/2010 at: http://www.tempe.gov/zoning/ZDCode/ZDCpart2.pdf The Common Council of the Town of Tempe adopted its first Zoning Ordinance, Ordinance Number 177 on April 14, 1938.

[iii] City of Tempe, Tempe Historic Preservation Office Gage Addition, Park Tract, College View
Subdivisions Historic Property Nomination Information accessed 11/25/2009 10:49 AM online at: http://www.tempe.gov/historicpres/mapleash.htm “The 1995 Maple Ash Neighborhood Plan recognized the unique shape of the neighborhood, roughly a 3:1 ratio of length to width. Because of the long and narrow configuration, over 40% of the parcels occur at the perimeter of the neighborhood. As these edges have developed as part of the neighborhood over time, perimeter parcels are integral to the historic core. A significant number of these edge parcels have taken on non-residential uses and zoning over time, their continued integration with the neighborhood is compromised by intensification through redevelopment. The Plan recognized the vulnerability of perimeter parcels and the importance of maintaining neighborhood scale and character at these fragile edges. The Plan emphasizes preservation of the borders for both historic and contemporary properties as a key to maintaining a buffer or transition zone to the historic neighborhood core.”

[iv] MAPLE ASH NEIGHBORHOOD Tempe –
Tempe's Maple Ash Neighborhood consists of three subdivisions in proximity to Arizona State University. In this area is the largest concentration of historic resources in the city. The Gage Addition, Park Tract, and College View subdivisions are significant as one of the oldest surviving neighborhoods in Tempe. The area is adjacent to downtown Tempe, Arizona State University, and Tempe St. Luke's Hospital, each of which have exerted pressure on the neighborhood at various times in the past. While the city historic preservation office and a majority of the homeowners in the neighborhood would like to have a historic district zoning overlay placed on the neighborhood, the property is zoned multi-family and many of the owners would prefer to develop their properties.”

[v] City of Tempe, Tempe Historic Preservation Office data accessed 12/22/2010 12:42:34 PM

[vi] Tempe Historical Museum, accessed Monday, November 23, 2009; Tempe Historic Property Survey: Survey Number HPS-429 Simpson House accessed 12/22/2010 online at: http://www.tempe.gov/museum/tempe_history/properties/hps429.htm [site includes link to Tempe Historic Property Survey]

[vii] National Park Service Bulletin 15: How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/publications/bulletins/nrb15/ “Comparative information is particularly important to consider when evaluating the integrity of a property that is a rare surviving example of its type. The property must have the essential physical features that enable it to convey its historic character or information. The rarity and poor condition, however, of other extant examples of the type may justify accepting a greater degree of alteration or fewer features, provided that enough of the property survives for it to be a significant resource.”

[viii] Garrison, James, 1999; Aspects of Integrity: Generalized Application http://www.tempe.gov/historicpres/Centennial[SampsonTupper]House.html [State Historic Preservation Officer Jim Garrison created a matrix titled “Aspects of Integrity: Generalized Application” to illustrate how to evaluate the integrity of a property. This chart indicates those aspects of integrity that must be present for different property types to remain eligible. For example, to identify aspects necessary for a District to maintain eligibility under criteria C (Design/Construction) enter the chart criteria column at “C – Design/Construction” and move across to the property type column for “District”, to see that four of the seven aspects of integrity must be present to maintain the integrity of a district that has significance under criteria C, they are; Setting, Design, Feeling, and Materials.

[ix] Janus Associates, Inc., and the Tempe Historical Society, 1983 Tempe Historic Property Survey Tempe History Museum http://www.tempe.gov/museum/Tempe_history/properties/ahpsfile.htm “The survey was a collaborative project produced by, and funded by a grant from the Arizona State Historic Preservation Office. Phase I of the survey (1980-1981) involved identifying more than 350 buildings and structures in Tempe that exhibited potential historical and/or architectural significance. Phase II (1982-1983) involved research and documentation of the 150 most significant resources. More than a dozen volunteers completed most of the research under the direction of Museum Director Susan Wilcox and Cindy Myers of Janus Associates. The research collection that was compiled as a result of this project includes individual files on 158 historic properties. Of those most important buildings and structures that were studied in 1983, only 60% are still standing today.”

[x] As evidenced by the abandoned effort to designate the Maple Ash area historic whereby over 100 letters in support of the designation and listing were received by the city from concerned citizens throughout the community.

[xi] U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, How To Evaluate The Integrity Of A Property accessed 12/22/2010 online at http://www.nps.gov/history/NR/publications/bulletins/nrb15/nrb15_8.htm “Location is the place where the historic property was constructed or the place where the historic event occurred. The relationship between the property and its location is often important to understanding why the property was created or why something happened. The actual location of a historic property, complemented by its setting, is particularly important in recapturing the sense of historic events and persons.” Integrity of location need not be present for the nomination as proposed.

[xii] U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, How To Evaluate The Integrity Of A Property accessed 12/22/2010 online at http://www.nps.gov/history/NR/publications/bulletins/nrb15/nrb15_8.htm “Design is the combination of elements that create the form, plan, space, structure, and style of a property. It results from conscious decisions made during the original conception and planning of a property (or its significant alteration) and applies to activities as diverse as community planning, engineering, architecture, and landscape architecture. Design includes such elements as organization of space, proportion, scale, technology, ornamentation, and materials.” Integrity of design is a condition precedent to the nomination as proposed.

[xiii] U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, How To Evaluate The Integrity Of A Property accessed 12/22/2010 online at http://www.nps.gov/history/NR/publications/bulletins/nrb15/nrb15_8.htm “Setting is the physical environment of a historic property. Whereas location refers to the specific place where a property was built or an event occurred, setting refers to the character of the place in which the property played its historical role. It involves how, not just where, the property is situated and its relationship to surrounding features and open space.” Integrity of setting need not be present for the nomination as proposed.

[xiv] Brick Industry Association Technical Notes on Brick Construction Number 30 - Bonds and Patterns in Brickwork [March 1999] accessed 12/22/2010 online at http://www.gobrick.com/bia/technotes/t30.htm “The word bond, when used in reference to masonry, may have three meanings: Structural Bond: the method by which individual masonry units are interlocked or tied together to cause the entire assembly to act as a single structural unit. Pattern Bond: the pattern formed by the masonry units and the mortar joints on the face of a wall. The pattern may result from the type of structural bond used or may be purely a decorative one unrelated to the structural bonding. Mortar Bond: the adhesion of mortar to the masonry units or to reinforcing steel.” In the unreinforced masonry of the 1940’s, structural bonding of masonry walls was typically accomplished as it is in the subject property, by the overlapping (interlocking) of the masonry units.

[xv] U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, How To Evaluate The Integrity Of A Property accessed 12/22/2010 online at http://www.nps.gov/history/NR/publications/bulletins/nrb15/nrb15_8.htm “Materials are the physical elements that were combined or deposited during a particular period of time and in a particular pattern or configuration to form a historic property. The choice and combination of materials reveal the preferences of those who created the property and indicate the availability of particular types of materials and technologies. Indigenous materials are often the focus of regional building traditions and thereby help define an area's sense of time and place.” Integrity of materials is a condition precedent to the nomination as proposed.

[xvi] U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, How To Evaluate The Integrity Of A Property accessed 12/22/2010 online at http://www.nps.gov/history/NR/publications/bulletins/nrb15/nrb15_8.htm “Workmanship is the physical evidence of the crafts of a particular culture or people during any given period in history or prehistory. It is the evidence of artisans' labor and skill in constructing or altering a building, structure, object, or site. Workmanship can apply to the property as a whole or to its individual components. It can be expressed in vernacular methods of construction and plain finishes or in highly sophisticated configurations and ornamental detailing. It can be based on common traditions or innovative period techniques.” Integrity of workmanship is a condition precedent to the nomination as proposed.

[xvii] U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, How To Evaluate The Integrity Of A Property accessed 12/22/2010 online at http://www.nps.gov/history/NR/publications/bulletins/nrb15/nrb15_8.htm

“Feeling is a property's expression of the aesthetic or historic sense of a particular period of time. It results from the presence of physical features that, taken together, convey the property's historic character.” For example, an early ranch-style house retaining original design, workmanship, and materials will relate the feeling of hand craftsmanship and onsite construction methods in residential construction before World War II. Integrity of feeling is a condition precedent to the nomination as proposed.

[xviii] U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, How To Evaluate The Integrity Of A Property accessed 12/22/2010 online at http://www.nps.gov/history/NR/publications/bulletins/nrb15/nrb15_8.htm

“Association is the direct link between an important historic event or person and a historic property. A property retains association if it is the place where the event or activity occurred and is sufficiently intact to convey that relationship to an observer. Like feeling, association requires the presence of physical features that convey a property's historic character.” For example, an early ranch-style house on a property whose natural and manmade elements have remained intact since the 1930s will retain its quality of association with the initial development of the subdivision and early suburban expansion within the original townsite. Integrity of association need not be present for the nomination as proposed.

[xix] Secretary of the Interior Standards for Rehabilitation accessed online 11/25/2009 12:32 PM at: http://www.nps.gov/history/hps/TPS/tax/rhb/stand.htm “The intent of the Standards is to assist the long-term preservation of a property's significance through the preservation of historic materials and features. As stated in the definition, the treatment "rehabilitation" assumes that at least some repair or alteration of the historic building will be needed in order to provide for an efficient contemporary use; however, these repairs and alterations must not damage or destroy materials, features or finishes that are important in defining the building's historic character.”

[xx] Arizona State Historic Preservation Office - Policy Statement For Recommendations Of Eligibility

May, 1992 http://www.tempe.gov/historicpres/Designations/SHPO_Policy_Eligibility_Integrity.pdf “'Because the AFIF initiative allows funds to be awarded to properties listed or determined eligible, the question arises as to how and by whom can these determinations be made, and under what conditions can these determinations be applied to properties with questionable integrity: but demonstrable restorability?

This question becomes more complex as one evaluates the wide range of integrity of listed properties, the evolution of the sheathing issue, and 'variations in viewpoint between National Register policy, Tax Act review. policy, and Certified Local Government (CLG) Design Review Ordinance policy.”

SOURCES
Tempe History Museum Historic Property Survey HPS-429: Simpson House

http://www.tempe.gov/museum/tempe_history/properties/hps429.htm

Last updated: 5/9/2012 9:40:23 AM